The Kingdom of Spain ratified the Convention of 15 November 1965 on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters, also called the Hague Service Convention, on June 4, 1987, and its provisions entered into force on August 3 of the same year.
US attorneys seeking service in Italy should become familiar with the mandatory character of the Convention as set forth in Volkswagenwerk A.G. v. Schlunk, 486 U.S. 694 (1988).
Canadian attorneys should consult provincial precedent. Canadian courts take a more nuanced view of the Convention, but effectively reach the same conclusion: its limitations must be observed.
Regardless of forum court requirements, the service rules of the receiving country must be observed, or enforcement of a judgment may become impossible.